Make your own free website on

The Immune System and Spirulina

Amha Belay, PhD

Scientific Director, Earthrise Nutritionals

      Our immune system is an intricate network of cells, organs and chemical messengers whose duty is to defend us against attack by foreign invaders. At the heart of the immune system is the ability to identify "self" from "non-self". This is done by specialized cells and chemical messengers that bind and kill the invader or inactivate the toxins produced by the invader without attacking or interfering with cells or substances that belong to "self". The main targets of our immune defenses are therefore infectious organisms like viruses, bacteria, parasites and their toxins.

      Under normal conditions our immune system should be able to ward off any attack by these invading organisms. However the immune system is often compromised due to our modern life style. Poor diet, lack of exercise and stress are known to result in impaired immune function. The wide and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is resulting in the appearance of many resistant bacteria and viruses. We have witnessed many such antibiotic resistant disease-causing organisms in the last decade, and more are sure to threaten our health in the future.

       Until such time that cures or effective treatments are found for these types of diseases, the best strategy is to boost the immune system and make it ready to defend us. One such strategy is the nutritional and therapeutic supplementation of our diet with foods and nutraceuticals that are known to strengthen our immune system. Such a product is found in SpirulinaSpirulina is a microscopic blue-green alga that has hundreds of years of history as a safe food. Recent laboratory, animal and human studies have shown that Spirulina promotes a healthy immune system. The following are what we know about Spirulina and the immune system:

       The natural way to defend ourselves from invading organisms is by using our immune system. The immune system has evolved over millions of years to be able to recognize almost any foreign matter. Keeping the immune system in optimum condition is therefore our only and first line of defense against new pathogens. It is therefore important to have our immune system at peak performance. Spirulina may help in promoting a healthy immune system in addition to the many other health-promoting benefits that it offers.


(SACRAMENTOCalif.) - Adding spirulina to cultured immune system cells significantly increases the production of infection fighting cytokines, say immunologists at UC Davis School of Medicine and MedicalCenter. Their finding is published in the Fall issue of the Journal of Medicinal Foods.

Spirulina are blue-green algae rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Used as a food supplement for more than 20 years, spirulina grows naturally in lakes with extremely high pH levels, but it is also harvested from large-scale commercial ponds, where purity is monitored before being dried and distributed in tablet and powdered form.

A number of animal studies have shown spirulina to be an effective immunomodulator (an agent that can effect the behavior of immune cells.) In rats spirulina inhibited allergic reactions by suppressing the release of histamine in a dose-dependent fashion. In cats, spirulina enhanced the ability of macrophages to engulf bacteria, and in chickens spirulina increased antibody responses and the activity of natural killer cells, which destroy infected and cancerous cells in the body.

While extensive human studies have not been done, several reports also suggest spirulina has therapeutic effects on hyperlipidemia and obesity. In one study, spirulina decreased total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein. A 1986 study of obese patients showed a significant reduction of body weight after including spirulina in the diet for four weeks. In the UC Davis study, researchers evaluated the secretion of the cytokines interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, and interleukin-1beta in the lab to get a better understanding of spirulina's potential regulatory effect on the immune system.

"We found that nutrient-rich spirulina is a potent inducer of interferon-gamma (13.6-fold increase) and a moderate stimulator of both interleukin-4 and interleukin-1beta (3.3-fold increase)," says Eric Gershwin, professor and chief of the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at UC Davis. "Together, increases in these cytokines suggest that spirulina is a strong proponent for protecting against intracellular pathogens and parasites and can potentially increase the expression of agents that stimulate inflammation, which also helps to protect the body against infectious and potentially harmful micro-organisms. Additional studies with individuals consuming spirulina are needed to determine whether these dramatic effects extend beyond the laboratory."

In the body, the preferential increase in the production of interferon-gamma over interleukin-4 would shift the immune system towards mounting a cell-mediated immune response instead of a humoral response. A cell-mediated response includes the activation of T-cells and antibodies that work with macrophages, another type of immune system cell, to engulf invading micro-organisms. Hence, spirulina's strength in protecting against intracellular pathogens and parasites. The moderate increase in the secretion of interleukin-1beta, a cytokine that acts on nearly every cell of the body to promote inflammation, works to support the overall immune response.

To evaluate the effects of spirulina on the immune system, the UC Davis immunologists collected blood samples from 12 healthy volunteers, separating out the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These cells, which include macrophages, monocytes, and lymphocytes, including B and T cells, work as a team to mount an immune response. The researchers incubated these cell cultures with dilutions of spirulina made from 429 mg capsules of dried, powdered spirulina from Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc. ( ). They added phytohemoglutanin, a known stimulator of lymphoid cells, to half of cell cultures to assess spirulina's effect on the immune system at rest and when stimulated to mount an allergic response. After 72 hours, they measured changes in cytokine levels in all samples using ELISA analysis. (ELISA, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is a sensitive technique for accurately determining the amount of protein in a given sample.)

"People have used foods like yogurt and spirulina throughout history," says Judy van de Water, associate professor of rheumatology, allergy and clinical immunology at UC Davis. "Through research, we are learning exactly how these foods improve immune system function and how they are a beneficial addition to our diet."

This research was funded in part by a grant from Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc., and the National Institutes of Health.

Copies of all news releases from UC Davis Health System are available on the web at

Health System | School of Medicine | Medical Center | Medical Group

This page last updated November 27, 2000

Copyright UC Regents. All rights reserved.

A reasonable source for spirulina: